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8.3.2021 : 5:08 : +0100

Der Forschungsschwerpunkt Internationale Wirtschaft (FIW) (undefinedhttps://www.fiw.ac.at/) ist eine Kooperation zwischen der Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien (WU), der Universität Wien, der Johannes Kepler Universität Linz und der Universität Innsbruck, WIFO, wiiw und WSR. FIW wird von den Bundesministerien BMBFW und BMDW unterstützt.

Tabellen zur aktuellen Wirtschaftslage

Die undefinedTabellen zur aktuellen Wirtschaftslage bieten einen schnellen Überblick über die wirtschaftliche Entwicklung in Österreich.

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W. Altzinger, "Österreichs Multinatione Unternehmen (MNUs) und deren konzernexterner und -interner Handel" ,
Jun. 2008 , pp. 59.

Datei:fileadmin/Documents/Publikationen/fiwstudie23.pdf

Abstract: The study analyses the development of foreign trade of Austrian Multinational Enterprises (MNE) for the period 1992-2005. During this period MNE account for about 54% of total exports and 46% of total imports. Both shares are roughly constant over the full period. Whilst the trading sector shows huge trade deficits (10.8 bn EUR or 4.0% of total GDP in 2005) the manufacturing sector performs rather very well. However, foreign (inward) and domestic owned (outward) MNE show quite different patterns. Whilst both groups of MNE realized increasingly higher trade surpluses over the full period (finally, in 2005 the surplus was 7.6 bn EUR and 8.4 bn EUR for outward and inward MNE respectively) intra-firm trade was far more intensive for inward compared to outward MNE. Generally, it seems to be the case that foreign MNE streamline their production chain much more intensively than outward MNE do. In particular, bilateral intra-firm trade is more intensive in this group of MNE. Hence it can also be expected that such kind of intensive specialisation provides these enterprises also with a competitive edge. Finally, the concentration of overall trade is enormous. The Top-10% of all MNE account for 61% of total MNE exports and 73% of total MNE imports. The concentration of intra-firm trade is even stronger. In particular this fact raises the question if policy measures and subsidies should focus that much on these already well-performing MNE. An alternative strategy would be to focus economic policies on measures which "nurture the superstars of the future".

S. Sieber, "Österreichs Attraktivität für ausländische Direktinvestionen sowie als Standort für Headquarters Funktionen" ,
Jun. 2008 , pp. 89.

Datei:fileadmin/Documents/Publikationen/fiwstudie21.pdf

Abstract: Der Schwerpunkt der Studie ist - primär auf Basis eines Fragebogens die Ermittlung der Attraktivität Österreichs als Standort für Headquarters Funktionen von international orientierten Unternehmen. Analysiert werden Unterschiede und Gemeinsamkeiten in den Bestimmungsgründen von Standortentscheidungen, in der Wertung der tatsächlichen Attraktivität des Standorts Österreich sowie in der Beschäftigungsentwicklung von drei Unternehmenstypen: ausländische multinationale Unternehmen (MNU) mit Headquarters Funktionen (HQ F) in Österreich, ausländische MNU ohne HQ F in Österreich und österreichische MNU. Alle drei Typen geben eine steigende Beschäftigungsentwicklung an, dieser "positive Headquarters Effekt" untermauert die Bedeutung von HQ F am Standort Österreich. Als wichtige Standortkriterien für die Ausübung von internationalen HQ F am Standort Österreich werden die "Verfügbarkeit von qualifiziertem Personal" sowie das "Ausbildungsniveau" genannt. Regional überwiegen bei HQ F in Österreich die weltweite Ausübung und die Ausübung für die 10 neuen EU Mitgliedstaaten, bzw. für die restlichen osteuropäischen Länder. Weiters deuten die Ergebnisse der Unternehmensbefragung darauf hin, dass die Einführung der Gruppenbesteuerung im Jahr 2005 zur Absicherung des Headquarters Standorts beigetragen hat. Aufgabe einer zukunftsorientierten Wirtschaftspolitik ist es weitere Verbesserungen im Bereich der besonders wichtigen Standortkriterien "Verfügbarkeit von qualifiziertem Personal" sowie "Ausbildungsniveau" voranzutreiben. Um die Wettbewerbsfähigkeit des Headquarters Standorts Österreich auch für die Zukunft zu sichern, sollten neue Wettbewerbsvorteile beispielsweise durch die Unterstützung der Ansiedelung von F&E Funktionen in Österreich aufgebaut werden, noch bevor die bestehenden Vorteile aufgrund der Nähe zu Osteuropa verblassen.

M. Falk, "International Outsourcing and Productivity Growth" ,
Jun. 2008 , pp. 26.

Datei:fileadmin/Documents/Publikationen/fiwstudie17.pdf

Abstract: This study investigates the impact of international outsourcing to low? and high income countries on total factor productivity growth based on manufacturing industry data for 14 OECD countries from 1995 ? 2000. We find that the broad measure of international outsourcing of material inputs to low income countries is significantly negatively related to productivity growth. Furthermore, while the narrow measure of international outsourcing of materials is not significant, purchased services from abroad have a significant and positive effect on TFP growth. In particular, international services outsourcing accounted for 20 percent of the growth of total factor productivity in the manufacturing sector in the selected OECD countries.

N. Bayerl, O. Fritz, R. Hierländer and G. Streicher, "Exports, Services and Value Added - A National, International and Regional Analysis for Austria" ,
Jun. 2008 , pp. 93.

Datei:fileadmin/Documents/Publikationen/fiwstudie8.pdf

Abstract: Austrian business cycles are strongly dependent on the development of foreign exports. The paper deals with two important issues in this context: What is the impact of foreign exports on total growth in the Austrian economy? A more and more globalized economy implies that the share of foreign imports in the production of export commodities increases. This suggests that the contribution of foreign exports to domestic growth will diminish over time ? this hypothesis will be tested in the paper. In addition, the results for Austria will be compared with those for other countries in the EU as well as the OECD. Export activities are not evenly distributed over space: While some regions are more specialized in the production of commodities for the domestic market, other regions are much more dependent on foreign exports. In the paper, the regional economic consequences of the value-added impacts of foreign exports will be analysed. The paper will make use of national input-output tables for the years 1995, 2000 and 2003 as well as input-output tables for OECD countries to examine the national economic impacts of foreign exports and an international comparison. Furthermore, a multiregional model for Austria ("MultiREG") will be applied for estimating the corresponding regional impacts.

M. Falk, "Effects of Foreign Ownership on Innovation Activities - Empirical Evidence for 12 European Countries" ,
Jun. 2008 , pp. 37.

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Abstract: In the present study we investigate the relationship between foreign ownership and innovation activities using the firm-level data of the third Community Innovation Survey (CIS) covering 12 European countries. Probit estimates based on 28,000 firms observations show that foreign owned firms are more innovative than domestic firms, particularly in the New EU Member States. However, results from the Blinder Oaxaca decomposition of the differences in the percentage of innovating firms between foreign owned and domestic firms reveals that the differences are mainly due to the different firm characteristics rather than the differences in coefficients. In particular, the dominance of foreign owned firms in the largest firm size group is the main factor contributing to the gap in the percentage of innovators between foreign owned firms and domestic firms. Furthermore, using the fractional logit model, we find that in the New EU Member States, foreign ownership has a positive and significant impact on the share of market novelties as well as on the share of new products in turnover. In this case, the results from the Blinder Oaxaca decomposition analysis indicate that the ownership difference in the share of innovative sales is not due to the differences in the observed firms' characteristics.

M. Falk, "Determinants of the Trade Balance in Industrialized Countries" ,
Jun. 2008 , pp. 30.

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Abstract: This paper investigates the determinants of the trade balance using panel data for 32 industrialized and emerging economies for the period 1990?2007. The results based on fixed effects models and linear mixed models allowing for random slope coefficients, show that the trade balance as a percentage of GDP is significantly positively related to real foreign GDP per capita of the trading partners. Real domestic GDP per capita has a negative effect on the trade balance. A real depreciation of the real exchange rate index leads to an improvement of the trade balance. However, in countries with a negative trade balance and/or a large positive net foreign direct investment position the trade balance is much less sensitive to movements in the real effective exchange rate index.

P. Egger, "Bilateral FDI Potentias for Austria" ,
Jun. 2008 , pp. 29.

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Abstract: Trade economists have for long considered gravity models to estimate unexhausted potentials for bilateral trade. Similar to the discrepancy between "normal" and "actual" bilateral trade, one may ask the question about the difference between "normal" and actual bilateral multinational activity. However, with multinational activity, zero bilateral data and heteroscedasticity are very import ant, even more so than with trade data. Therefore, this paper suggests using generalize d linear rather than log-linear models to specify "normal" FDI and obtain estimates of unexhausted FDI potentials. I use panel data on Austria’s bilateral multinational activity across 25 countries and 7 country-blocs, 4 sectors and 13 years to illustrate the disadvantage of log-linear model estimation at quasi-maximum likelihood estimation.

G. Hunya, "Austrian FDI by main Countries adn Industries" ,
Jun. 2008 , pp. 39.

Datei:fileadmin/Documents/Publikationen/fiwstudie15.pdf

Abstract: Austria is not among the top global investors, but it is an important regional player in Central and Southeast Europe. Will it keep that position, or will the regional player develop into a global player? This is the question for the future. Based on OeNB data we have found no indication for Austrian FDI expanding outside Europe. We only observe a shift of new FDI within the CEECs to the East and Southeast. As these are fast growing regions, they provide a good opportunity of internationalization for Austrian companies in the next future. Meanwhile, opportunities in even faster growing Asian countries may be missed. Looking at the relationship between FDI growth on one hand and labour productivity, capital productivity and profitability of subsidiaries on the other, we identified the profitability of subsidiaries as the factor most related to the growth of Austrian outward FDI. As a conclusion of the analysis in this paper, policy may have two tasks. One is to encourage companies that are not active internationally to invest abroad. But one can hardly expect that smaller companies go beyond the neighbouring countries. Therefore, another objective could be to support companies to grow beyond SME size because concentrated capital is necessary to enter more remote investment targets. While financial services and some manufacturing industries have internationally active larger companies, other industries may be hindered in their expansion by small firm size and scarcity of knowledge. Especially high-tech industries may need more venture capital and coaching.

J. Wörz, "Austria's Competitveness in Trade in Services" ,
Jun. 2008 , pp. 29.

Datei:fileadmin/Documents/Publikationen/fiwstudie3.pdf

Abstract: Trade in services is a rapidly growing phenomenon. Consequently, the question of individual countries? competitiveness in trade in services is of increasing importance. In this paper we describe patterns of competitiveness in services sectors for EU members over the period 1995 to 2005, differentiating between 11 individual service activities. We find a clear East-West divide in general and especially for Austria's strengths and weaknesses in the services sector. Austria's competitiveness lies in traditional, yet globally declining sectors such as transport and travel and is weak in industries such as insurance, computer and information, communication services and royalties and licence fees. The latter two industries are characterized by above-average levels of competitiveness within the EU. We then investigate the influence of factors such as labour productivity, unit labour costs, industry size and skill endowments for services sector competitiveness in the EU member states.

M. Falk and M. Hake, "A Panel Data Analysis on FDI and Exports" ,
Jun. 2008 , pp. 32.

Datei:fileadmin/Documents/Publikationen/fiwstudie12.pdf

Abstract: The present paper investigates the link between exports and the outward FDI stock using a panel of industries and seven EU countries for the period 1973-2004. In particular, we use the panel causality tests developed by Holtz-Eakin, Newey, and Rosen (1988). Estimates using system GMM estimators show that exports cause FDI but not vice versa. The long-run elasticity of the outward FDI stock with respect to exports is 0.78 and highly significant. Separate estimates by destination country yields the same result that exports cause outward FDI but the effect is only significant for the CEE countries and other developed countries (i.e. United States, Japan, Canada, Switzerland, Norway, etc.).

B. Felderer, G. Grohall, C. Haefke, U. Schuh and E. Skriner, "Verflechtungen in der österreichischen Außenwirtschaft" ,
Jun. 2008 , pp. 134.

Datei:fileadmin/Documents/Publikationen/fiwstudie24.pdf

Abstract: Die Analyse (mit einem "Constant Market Shares" Modell) über die Wettbewerbsfähigkeit und Struktur hat ergeben, dass sich in der österreichischen Außenwirtschaft mit Gütern in den vergangenen Jahren die Wettbewerbsfähigkeit verschlechtert hat. Es zeichnen sich auch strukturelle Probleme ab. Hier erscheint es notwendig, neue Märkte zu erobern und das Produktangebot der internationalen Nachfrageentwicklung anzupassen. Das Ergebnis der Untersuchung (mit vektorautoregressiven Prozessen) über die Zusammenhänge im österreichischen Außenhandel zeigt, dass die Exporte kleiner Dienstleistungsbranchen ein Vielfaches an Warenexporten mit sich ziehen. Signifikante Impulse kommen von der Transportbrache, von den Bau- und Finanzdienstleistungen, den EDV- und Informationsdienstleistungen, den Exporten von Patenten und Lizenzen, den sonstigen unternehmensbezogenen Dienstleistungen und vom Bereich operationales Leasing. Das Ergebnis des Gravitationsmodels ist, dass die österreichische Exportwirtschaft in Länder mit einem hohen Einkommen mehr exportiert, dass eine Verringerung der Distanz um 5 Prozent mit einer Steigerung der Exporte um 5 Prozent gerechnet werden kann und dass die Grenzen innerhalb der EU kaum handelsmindernd sind. Werden Grenzkontrollen vermindert, so wirkt sich dies positiv auf die Reiszeit aus.

V. Brandicourt, C. Schwellnus and J. Wörz, "Austria's Potential for Trade in Services" ,
Mä. 2008 , pp. 35.

Datei:fileadmin/Documents/Publikationen/fiwstudie2.pdf

Abstract: We estimate the potential for trade in services in a 2-step approach using a gravity model for a sample of bilateral service trade flows in individual service categories between 65 countries over the period 2000 to 2005. In particular, we focus on the Austrian economy's potential for untapped trade in services which appears to be substantial. While Austria's travel services are reaching their potential, there is still ample room for exports of commercial services. Our analysis further points to the fact that this lack of exploiting the potential arises less from legal and institutional features as measured by OECD regulation indicators, but rather from other structural features of the Austrian economy.